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Enma-ten Mandala
Important Cultural Property
Hanging scroll
Height 125.1cm Width 87.4cm
Kyoto National Museum
This mandala features Enma-ten (Yama-deva), the Lord of Hell, riding on a bull along with eighteen other deities, including Taizanfukun and Godôdaijin. It is also called the Jûkyûi Mandala (Mandala of Nineteen Deities). It is said that the Onjô-ji Temple priest Kakuyû (1053-1140) donated this painting to Emperor Toba (r. 1107-1123), and the same kind of mandala also exists in Onjô-ji Temple. Although this mandala is considered to be based on the Esoteric Buddhist scriptures, Enma-ten, in the middle, is depicted with a beard and an angry face, similar to the expression of Enma-ô (Yama-raja) in later-period Rokudô-e (paintings of the Six Realms of Rebirth). Thus, it shows the transition from Enma-ten to Enma-ô .