Important Cultural Property
(Some of the works of theIconographic Drawings of the Womb World Mandala (J., Taizo Zuzo)
Ink on paper, black and white only, scroll
Scroll 2: H 30.3, L 1333.0
Kamakura period/Kenkyū 5(1194)
Provenance: To-in of Mii-dera Temple, Shiga Prefecture and Mandara-dō, Shiga Prefecture
Nara National Museum
Chishodaishi Enchin (814-891) brought back over 1,000 various Buddhist painting scrolls from Tang (China). It seems that the "Taizo Shozon Ikkan" included in a list of articles that were brought back from China might be this Taizo-zuzou. It should be noted that according to the record, Enchin received Taizo Kanjo at Choan Seiryu-ji Temple in 855 and later drew a picture of Taizo world. From the sentences written at the beginning (“大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經中譯出大悲胎藏生秘密曼荼羅主畫像圖巻一［分爲上下／今此上巻］”) and at the end (“珍自分之 爲上下巻”) of the first painting scroll, the Gumyo of the painting and the fact that it was divided into two paintings after being brought back by Enchin became known. According to the Gumyo, when Zenmui translated "Dainichikyo" into Chinese, he had drawn major Buddhist images related to Taizokai. In the first painting scroll, various Buddhist images including Chudaihachiyoin, Jimyoin, Rengebuin, Kongoshuin, Monjuin, Jogaisyoin, Jizoin and Kokuuzoin are drawn. In the second painting scroll, some Shakainshozo and Gekongoubuin are drawn and at the end of the scroll, Zenmui is drawn. Each Buddhist image has features influenced by India and countries to the west of China. These paintings are iconographically different from the current Taizokai Mandala and have unique features of Birushana Nyorai drawn in the beginning of the scroll being represented in a Nyorai style instead of Bosatsu style. Therefore, these paintings are extremely important from the perspective of the study of iconography.
According to the Okugaki (postscript added at the end), Toba Sojo Kakuyu had Ougen copy the Taizozuzo held at Mitsuidera Temple, which Enchin had brought back from Tang (the first copy) and then Shinen copied the first copy (held at Horinin) in 1181 (the second copy) and finally Zenkaku, Zenjitsu and Ajari (Naifu) copied the second copy (held at Daihoin) in 1194. Simply put, these Taizozuzo are the third copy of the original brought back by Enchin.